per veritatem iustitia


This site discusses political economics. Due to hacker activity, we will pare this website down to a few reviewed files. Please read this legal disclaimer before proceeding.


Comments:                           Policy                          Practice and Theory:    

Including 10/1/17 comments     3/1/19 ←PORT NOTE(2)   9/1/08            7/1/18      9/1/18    12/1/18    

                                                     1/1/19        2/1/19        5/1/19   N.B.→ 6/1/19     9/1/19


Options are the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a commodity at a certain price. Options are very risky investments because they bear not only the price risk of the commodity, itself, but also decrease in value daily at a constant commodity price.  However, some purchased options can also be regarded as income insurance, which may or may not be expensive. We recently bought an option whose value is a very small fraction of our portfolio. This investment is suitable for our unique situation.


We think these are the most relevant articles concerning the effects of rapid change and market volatility upon societies:

1. Most Recent: The Feasibility of Renewable Energy

2. The Dimensions of Climate Change                                     Footnote 7

3. What to Do  (rev.)    Testing The Reasons,                           Footnote 12a

4.  Climate Change and the Economy                                       Additional Comment +

5. Adam Smith and the Modern World n.b.                                                                                                                

6. Values and Society n.b.                                                             Footnote 17

7. How Liberal Societies Decide                                                  Addenda (i-v)

8. The Contours of Change  n.b.

9. The Limitations of Very Limited Government

10. Reason, Economic Growth and Government

11.  Reason in the Modern World

12. The Necessity of Social Consensus 

13. The Effect of Broad Economic Forces on U.S. Workers  

14. The Effects of Automation on Work and Politics 

15. Modern Economics and Growth

16.The French Revolution of 1789 and the Precondition for Effective Change

17.The Nature of Stock Market Equilibrium


We hope these continuing discussions and articles will be helpful to you.